Daily Archives

4 Articles

Posted by Elisabeth Heigl on

Scanning and Structural Data

The Spruchakten of the Greifswald Law Faculty are scanned on Bookeye4 book scanners (Image Access) in combination with the scanning software UCC (Universal Capturing Client) by Intranda. UCC not only allows the capturing of structural data while scanning, but is also directly connected to the Goobi server (also by Intranda), where the digital processes of our project (except for handwritten text recognition) are controlled. Tasks already created in Goobi (Goobi-Vorgang) can thus be accessed in UCC, ‘filled up’ with image-files and associated structural data and then be exported to the Goobi server.

We scan consistently at 400 dpi and 24-bit color depth. The original files created are saved as uncompressed TIF files. For further processing and presentation at the Digital Library Mecklenburg-Vorpommern however they are copied as compressed JPG files.

UCC enables you to capture structural data during the scanning process. This means that the scan operator can already set a structural element for related pages of the file while scanning. Every single “Responsum” (meaning each legal case in the file) receives the structural element “Vorgang”. In the later editing of the metadata, we only have to add a descriptive main title.

Posted by Dirk Alvermann on

Knowing what you want

A digitization project with Handwritten Text Recognition can have very different goals. They can range from the critical digital edition to the provision of manuscripts as full texts to the indexing of large text corpora via Key Word Spotting. All three objectives allow different approaches, which have a great influence on the technical and personnel efforts.

In this project, only the last two target definitions are of interest.  A critical edition is not intended, even if the full texts generated in this project could serve as the basis of such.

We aim at a complete indexing of the manuscripts by automatic text recognition. The results will then be made public online in the Digital Library Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. A search is available there, which shows the hits in the image itself. The user, who has sufficient palaeographic knowledge, can explore the context of the hit in the image himself or switch to a modern full text view, or even only use the latter.

Posted by Dirk Alvermann on

Why HTR will change it all

For some years now, archives and libraries have been dedicating more and more of their time to the digitisation of historical manuscripts. The strategies are quite different. Some would like to present their “treasures” in a contemporary manner, others would like to make more extensive collections available for use in an appropriate digital form. The advantages of digitisation are obvious. The original sources are preserved and the interested researchers and non-experts can access the material independently of place and time without having to spend days or weeks in reading rooms. Considering the practice of the 20th century, this is an enormous step forward.

Initially, such digital services provide no more than a digital image of the original historical source. They are developed and maintained at gerat expense, both financially and in terms of staff. If you look at the target groups of these services, you can see that they are mainly aimed at the very same people who also visit archives and libraries. However, the addressees usually have the ability to decipher such historical manuscripts. Optimistically speaking, we are talking about one or two percent of the population. For everyone else, these digital copies are just beautiful to look at.

Keep this picture in mind if you want to understand why the Handwritten Text Recognition (HTR) is opening a whole new chapter in the history of digital indexing and use of historical documents. In a nutshell: HTR allows us to move from simple digitalization to the digital transformation of historical sources. Thanks to the HTR, not only the digital image of a manuscript but also its content is made available in a form that can be read by everyone and searched by machines – over hundreds of thousands of pages.

Thus the contents of historical handwritings can be opened up to a public to whom it has so far remained closed or at least not easily accessible. This does not only adress the non-professional researchers. Access to the contents of the sources will also be much easier for academic experts from disciplines that do not have historical auxiliary sciences like palaeography as part of their classical educational canon. This makes new constellations of inderdisciplinary research possible. Ultimately, since the contents of the manucsripts can now be evaluated by machine, questions and methods of the Digital Humanities can be more easily applied to the material than before.

Tips & Tools
Recommendation for further reading: Mühlberger, Archiv 4.0 oder warum die automatisierte Texterkennung alles verändern wird Tagungsband Archivtag Wolfsburg, in: Massenakten – Massendaten. Rationalisierung und Automatisierung im Archiv (Tagungsdokumentationen zum Deutschen Archivtag, Band 22), hg. v. VdA, Fulda 2018, S. 145-156.

Posted by Anna Brandt on

What you find here and what you don’t

This blog mainly reports about our work with Transkribus. In addition, we also present the project workflow and our experience with the scanning processes, the applied parameters, the creation of structural and metadata and the presentation of the project results in the Viewer of the Digital Library Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

This blog is not a manual. So don’t expect us to give step-by-step instructions for individual tasks that can be done in Transkribus (although we sometimes do). But there are a lot of good and proven How-To’s, which the Transkribus team and users have developed over the past years. Here you can read about practical experiences and some tips & tricks.

Transkribus now has two interfaces: the “Expert Client”, which you can download here, and the Web User Interface (WebUI), which you can reach at this address. This blog is almost exclusively about the Expert Client, because it provides the full functionality needed to handle challenging projects. Under which circumstances and why the use of the WebUI is nevertheless useful and appropriate, we explain here .

Our experiences are based on a medium-sized large-scale-project. Here approx. 250,000 images are processed. Our focus is accordingly aligned. We use the possibilities of Transkribus to open up large quantities of documents through handwritten text recognition (HTR), to enrich them with content and to make them available online. Searchability is to be made possible by means of full text search or keyword spotting (KWS). The type of methods used and the demands placed on the results are aligned to this goal. Projects on a smaller scale may use differentiated and more subtle methods; nevertheless, there are some useful experiences for them as well.

Tips & Tools
Recommendation for further reading: Günter Mühlberger, Tamara Terbul: Handschriftenerkennung für historische Schriften. Die Transkribus Plattform